Egg oil, also known as egg yolk oil or ovum oil, is derived from the yolk of chicken eggs consisting mainly of triglycerides with traces of lecithin, cholesterol, biotin, xanthophylls lutein & zeaxanthin and immunoglobulins. It is free of egg proteins and hence may be used safely by people who are allergic to eggs, for topical applications such as hair and skin care. The product has several historical references in Unani (Greek) medicine for hair care. Traditional Chinese medicine uses egg oil for burns, eczema, dermatitis, mouth ulcers, skin ulcers, chapped nipples, tinea capitis, ringworm, nasal vestibulitis, frostbite and hemorrhoids.
In alchemy, the oil was traditionally extracted from the yolk by a fairly simple process, [failed verification] by which fifty eggs yielded approximately five ounces of oil. Modern methods of production include liquid–liquid extraction using common solvents such as hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Unlike traditional egg oil produced by heat, solvent extracted product also contains immunoglobulins which are destroyed at higher temperatures. There are only a few commercial producers globally.